Dexamedison (dexmedetomidine hydrochloride) Sedation and analgesia of dogs and cats, 10 ml (Dexmedesed/Sedadex analog)
1 ml of the drug contains:
dexmedetomidine hydrochloride — 0.5 mg
The liquid is colorless, transparent.
Dexmedetomidine is a strong, highly selective alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist of a wide spectrum of action. Inhibits the transmission of nerve impulses in adrenergic synapses due to competition with norepinephrine.
Depresses the central nervous system and increases the pain threshold in animals. The action depends on the dose: small doses give a moderate sedative effect without analgesia, large doses – a pronounced sedative effect with analgesia.
After injection, dexmedetomidine is well absorbed, quickly distributed in the body and easily overcomes the blood-brain barrier. The maximum concentration of the drug in the blood is reached after 15-30 minutes. More than 90% binds to blood plasma proteins. The elimination half-life in dogs is 40-50 minutes, in cats – 60 minutes. It is metabolized in the liver and excreted mainly by the kidneys.
Sedation and analgesia of dogs and cats during surgical operations, clinical examinations and manipulations, sedation of animals, prevention of their aggressive behavior, premedication during general anesthesia.
Do not use in animals with increased sensitivity to the active substance of the drug, severe systemic diseases, heart failure, impaired liver and kidney functions, pregnant, lactating, exhausted and weakened animals, productive animals; dogs and cats that are tired or in a state of shock, stress (due to heat, frost); for dogs up to 4 months old and cats up to 3 months old.
Method of application and dosage
The drug is administered to dogs intravenously or intramuscularly, to cats only intramuscularly.
For a sedative effect and analgesia, a solution with a concentration of 0.1 mg of dexmedetomidine per 1 ml is used:
- dogs — 0.5-2 ml per 10 kg of body weight;
- cats — 0.5 ml per 1 kg of body weight.
A solution with a concentration of 0.5 mg of dexmedetomidine per 1 ml is used:
- dogs — 0.1-0.8 ml per 10 kg of body weight;
- cats — 0.1 ml per 1 kg of body weight.
For the introduction of small volumes of the drug, it is recommended to use a calibrated syringe for more accurate dosing.
When carrying out minor manipulations, as well as procedures and examinations that require fixation, sedation and analgesia, the dose of dexmedetomidine for cats is 0.4 ml per 1 kg of body weight.
*Kilograms to Pounds conversion table
|Kilograms (kg)||Pounds (lb)||Pounds+Ounces
|0.1 kg||0.220 lb||0 lb 3.527 oz|
|1 kg||2.205 lb||2 lb 3.274 oz|
|5 kg||11.023 lb||11 lb 0.370 oz|
|10 kg||22.046 lb||22 lb 0.740 oz|
Immediately after the introduction of the drug, a drop in blood pressure is possible, which then returns to normal or slightly lower values. Decreased heart rate, respiratory movements and hypothermia are possible.
Vomiting may occur 5-10 minutes after the injection or during recovery.
Sometimes paleness and/or cyanosis of mucous membranes is observed. In cats, drying of the mucous membrane of the eyes and cornea is often possible.
During sedation, muscle tremors are possible, occasionally – clouding of the cornea, pulmonary edema.
Before administering the drug, it is necessary to conduct a thorough clinical examination of the animal and not to feed it for 12 hours. Access to water should be unlimited.
After using the product, the animal should be in a warm room at a constant temperature, both during the procedure and during recovery. You can feed and/or drink the animal only after restoring the swallowing reflex. Excited or aggressive animals must be calmed down before administering the drug. Any procedures should be started after sedation reaches its maximum (10-30 minutes after the injection), which depends on the method of administration of the solution.
It is necessary to observe the dosage and frequency of use of the drug.
The drug enhances the effect of drugs that depress the nervous system, therefore, the specifics of the action of each of them should be taken into account and their doses should be adjusted.
Carefully combine anticholinergic drugs with dexmedetomidine.
Administration of atipamezole after dexmedetomidine quickly cancels the effect of the latter and shortens the recovery period.
An overdose of the drug leads to a delay in awakening after anesthesia and sedation. In some cases, suppression of blood circulation and breathing is possible.
In case of overdose or if the use of the drug becomes potentially dangerous for the life of the animal, it is necessary to enter Reverson (intramuscularly, once) in the following doses:
- dogs — 0.5 of the dose of Dexmedison (in ml) containing dexmedetomidine 0.1 mg/ml or the same dose as Dexmedison containing dexmedetomidine 0.5 mg/ml;
- cats — 0.1 of the dose of Dexmedison (in ml) with the content of dexmedetomidine 0.1 mg/ml or 0.5 of the dose of Dexmedisone with the content of dexmedetomidine 0.5 mg/ml.
In a dry, dark place inaccessible to children at temperatures from +4 to +25 °C.
After opening the bottle, the drug should be used within 28 days.
DEXMEDETOMIDINE IS THE NEWEST DRUG FOR SEDATION IN ANESTHESIOLOGY AND RESUSCITATION
According to its chemical composition, dexmedetomidine is the D-enantiomer of medetomidine (used for sedation and analgesia in veterinary practice) and is a completely new drug from the group of α2-agonists, which has unique properties.
Dexmedetomidine is able to provide sedation similar to the natural sleep of a person or animal. It does not suppress breathing, improves the quality of anesthesia in various clinical situations: pathologies of the immune system, excess weight, high cardiac risk, young age of the animal.
Drugs from the group of α2-adrenomimetics, to which dexmedetomidine belongs, act in a complex manner, changing the functioning parameters of various organs and systems. This effect is due to the stimulation of α2-adrenoceptors. These receptors include several subtypes, among which α2A-, α2B- and α2C-receptors are distinguished.
It is α2Adrenoceptors that are mainly located in the brain, as a rule, presynaptically on nerve endings. When these receptors are stimulated, the flow of calcium ions to the nerve endings decreases. This, in turn, inhibits the release of norepinephrine into the synaptic cleft. Most of the effects of α2-adrenomimetics, in particular sedative, sympatholytic (hypotensive and hypothermic), are associated with the effect on these receptors.
α2B-adrenoceptors, like α1-adrenoceptors, are found mainly in the smooth muscles of internal organs and blood vessels. After the introduction of dexmedetomidine, blood pressure first rises, and because of this, the hypotensive effect of the drug, which is indirectly provided by α2A-adrenoceptors, is relatively smoothed out.
Thus, the sedative effect of dexmedetomidine is as close as possible to the mechanism of natural sleep. When administered at therapeutic concentrations, patients are calm, easily roused from sleep, able to interact with staff even while on mechanical ventilation through an endotracheal tube, and quickly fall asleep again if necessary. Due to its unique properties, dexmedetomidine improves the quality of anesthesia in patients with various problems by increasing pain tolerance and maintaining intact respiratory function. This makes dexmedetomidine an indispensable tool for the anesthesiologist.
Brovafarma has added another drug to its arsenal of sedation and anesthesia products — Dexmedison.
Properties of Dexmedison:
- has a dose-dependent sedative/hypnotic effect due to the inhibition of noradrenergic neurons in the brain stem;
- the mechanism of sedative action differs from benzodiazepines and propofol;
- ensures easier awakening of patients, their more effective interaction with the surrounding world and a higher degree of consciousness of patients after sedation;
- has typical hemodynamic effects — causes bradycardia and hypotension/hypertension;
- minimally affects the function of breathing.
Studies on various animal species have demonstrated the powerful sedative and anesthetic effects of dexmedetomidine. Thus, today Dexmedison is the drug of choice for anesthesiologists when performing both complex surgical interventions and various medical and diagnostic procedures and manipulations.